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[ontolog] Multilingual ontologies

To: <ontolog@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "Martin Bryan" <mtbryan@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Tue, 8 Oct 2002 08:38:48 +0100
Message-id: <03d201c26e9e$cec59aa0$bec666c3@yourudvgq1w43i>
Adam    (01)

>    You might be interested in work we've done to express our ontology
> automatically in different languages.  Currently, we support English and
> Czech.  The output is awkward but understandable.  Take a look at
> <http://ontology.teknowledge.com> and follow the link to the "beta
> browser.  You can click on "English | Cesky" to see the alternate
> presentations.    (02)

I am afraid I don't class changing the headers and navigation bars to suit
the language of the user as a "multilingual ontology". What you demonstrate
is a multilingual interface to a monolingual ontology.    (03)

I should also point out that I do not consider an ontology that simply
provides 1:1 mappings from a set monolingual ontology to another language as
a multilingual ontology, because the boundaries of term definitions are
determined by the starting language.    (04)

A true multilingual ontology will require n:n mappings, where any particular
term in one language maps to a set of terms in another language, depending
on context, and the mappings are not symmetrical.    (05)

The work I did for the CEN/ISSS Electronic Commerce group last year on
defining a MULECO -- Multilingual Upper-Level Electronic Commerce Ontology
(http://www.sgml.u-net.com/CWA-04.doc) was based on the The EAGLES
Guidelines for Lexical Semantic Standards
(http://www.ilc.pi.cnr.it/EAGLES96/EAGLESLE.PDF) that forms the basis for
EuroWordNet. The MULECO document, which includes a survey of the main
ontology definition languages as of the end of 2001, identifies the
following set of "requirements" for a multilingual e-commerce ontology:    (06)

1. The ability to uniquely identify the domain (e.g. industry sector)
    in which each term is employed    (07)

2. The ability to formally record the meaning of the term within a
    particular domain    (08)

3. The ability to identify other domains in which the same meaning
    applies    (09)

4. The ability to record alternative terms that have the same meaning
    within the original domain    (010)

5. The ability to identify alternative terms used for the same meaning
    in other domains    (011)

6. The ability to identify an exactly equivalent term used in a
    different language    (012)

7. The ability to identify a nearly equivalent term used in a different
    language    (013)

8. The ability to identify terms that form a part of an object defined
    by a term    (014)

9. The ability to identify wholes that a term forms a part of    (015)

10. The ability to identify an opposite term or property (e.g.
     water-resistant/water-soluble)    (016)

11. The ability to record relationships between terms or properties    (017)

12. The ability to identify opposite relationships (e.g. isMother/isChild)    (018)

13. The ability to declare properties that record measurements    (019)

14. The ability to declare properties that record times    (020)

15. The ability to associate terms with specific points in process chains    (021)

The document ends with an XML DTD for capturing material based on a subset
of the EAGLES model relevant for e-commerce that meets the set of identified
needs.    (022)

Martin Bryan    (023)

The SGML Centre, 29 Oldbury Orchard, Churchdown, Glos GL3 2PU, UK
Phone/Fax: +44 1452 714029  E-mail: mtbryan@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx    (024)

For further details about The SGML Centre visit http://www.sgml.u-net.com    (025)

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An archive of the [ontolog] forum can be found
at http://ontolog.cim3.org/forums/ontolog    (026)
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