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Re: [ontolog-forum] (OT) German

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Fri, 11 Jan 2008 22:14:15 -0500
Message-id: <47883087.5030509@xxxxxxxxxxx>
RS> Sanskrit is the first spoken and documented written language.
 > Hopefully Greek and Latin are derivatives of the ancient
 > Indo-European Sanskrit language.
 > I know for sure that German, Russian are derived from roots of
 > Sanskrit language.    (01)

Instead of saying that all those languages are derived from
Sanskrit, it is more accurate to say that all of them,
including Sanskrit, are derived from a more ancient language,
which is usually called Proto-Indo-European (PIE).    (02)

The estimated date for PIE is about 4000 to 6000 BC, probably
somewhere south-east of the Black Sea.  The oldest known version
of PIE is Hittite, which is recorded in cuneiform from about
1800 BC.  It split off much earlier than the other branches
of PIE and diverges the most from them.    (03)

Greek split off later than Hittite.  The Greek word for 100 is
hekton, which differs from the two major groups, distinguished
by an initial K or S for 100:    (04)

    Centum:  the western group includes the Latin, Celtic, and
    Germanic languages.  In the Germanic branch, the initial K
    became an H, but that is a later development from the initial
    H of Greek.  In the later Romance languages, the K sound in
    'centum' became a CH sound in Italian and an S sound in
    most of the others.    (05)

    Satem:  the eastern group probably had an initial K, which
    changed to S before they split into the Indo-Iranian and
    Balto-Slavic groups.    (06)

Two other Indo-European languages, whose relationships to the
others are unclear, include Albanian and Armenian.    (07)

And by the way, the hypothetical source for 'centum' or 'satem'
was probably 10 times 10 or 'dekemdekem', which was later
simplified to 'kendem' before becoming 'centum' or 'satem'.    (08)

In Europe, the non-Indo-European languages include two members
of the Finno-Ugric group (Finnish and Hungarian) and Basque,
which has no known relationship to any other language.  Turkish
is a member of the Uralic group, which includes many languages
in central Asia.    (09)

For some links to other resources, see    (010)

    Proto-Indo-European links    (011)

One of them is a discussion by the linguist Geoffrey Sampson,
who included a translation of a Sanskrit story to a hypothetical
version of PIE.  (Copy below)    (012)

John Sowa
_________________________________________________________________    (013)

Source:  http://www.grsampson.net/Q_PIE.html    (014)

English translation of the Sanskrit:    (015)

     Once there was a king. He was childless. The king wanted a son.    (016)

     He asked his priest: May a son be born to me!    (017)

     The priest said to the king: Pray to the god Varuna.    (018)

     The king approached the god Varuna to pray now to the god.    (019)

     Hear me, father Varuna!    (020)

     The god Varuna came down from heaven.    (021)

     What do you want? I want a son.    (022)

     Let this be so, said the bright god Varuna.    (023)

     The kings lady bore a son.    (024)

Hypothetical PIE translation:    (025)

     To recs hest. So nputlos hest. So recs shnum welt.    (026)

     S tso cceutrm prcscet: Shnus moi jnhyotaam!    (027)

     So cceuter tom rejm weuqet: Ihgeswo deiwm Wrunom.    (028)

     So recs deiwm Werunom hpo-sesore nu deiwm ihgeto.    (029)

     Clutt moi, phter Werune!    (030)

     Deiws Wrunos kmta diws gweht.    (031)

     Qd welsi? Wlmi shnum.    (032)

     Td hstu, wuqet louks deiwos Werunos.    (033)

     Reejs ptnih shnum gegonhe.    (034)

Note the word 'recs', which is related to the Latin 'rex' and
the Indian 'rajah'.  The verb 'hest' has a past tense marker
in front and the ending -t for third-person singular.  Other
similarities are left as an exercise for the reader.    (035)

John Sowa    (036)

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