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Re: [ontolog-forum] do not trust quantifiers

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: Simon Spero <ses@xxxxxxx>
Date: Thu, 30 Sep 2010 13:06:44 -0400
Message-id: <AANLkTimOJrkwZXoiWG2hBrtCj+0qggHZ6mVb7+aHJLk8@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>

In situation calculus, a situation is seen either a reified state, representing every proposition that is true in that state (McCarthy and Hayes 1969) or as a history of actions (Reiter 1991).   

Under either approach, events are quite separate from situations; they are things that cause changes in situations. McCarthy (2002) treats events as including actions, and distinguishes  between external events (changes that are the result of an action), and internal events, which occur without an action taking place.   Other writers, e.g. Ghallab, Nau, and Traverso (2004) in their textbook on planning, use the term event to refer to the latter. 

As MacMillan  possibly said, when asked what his greatest fear as a statesman was: 'Events, my dear boy, events'.


Ghallab, Malik, Dana S. Nau, and Paolo Traverso (2004). Automated planning: theory and practice. Elsevier. 

ISBN: 9781558608566. 

URL: http://spiderman-2.laas.fr/planning/ 

McCarthy, John (2002). “Actions And Other Events In Situation Calculus”. In: Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 615–628.

Available at http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/sitcalc.pdf

McCarthy, John and Patrick J. Hayes (1969). “Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence”. In: Machine Intel ligence 4. Ed. by B. Meltzer and D. Michie. reprinted in McC90. Edinburgh University Press, pp. 463–502.  

Available at http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/mcchay69/mcchay69.html

Reiter, Ray. (1991). “The frame problem in the situation calculus: a simple solution (sometimes) and a completeness result for goal regression.” In: Artificial intelligence and mathematical theory of computation: papers in honour of John McCarthy. Ed. by Vladimir Lifshitz. Academic Press Professional, pp. 359–380. 

Available at: ftp://ftp.csri.toronto.edu/pub/cogrob/simple.ps.Z

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