Interesting and useful summary. Perhaps you could provide us with an
example of some more or less "rare" logic that is inspired by some
particular culture? . . . Purely for academic interest, it seems like an
interesting topic. (01)
> -----Original Message-----
> From: ontolog-forum-bounces@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx [mailto:ontolog-forum-
> bounces@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx] On Behalf Of John F. Sowa
> Sent: Thursday, December 10, 2009 9:29 PM
> To: paoladimaio10@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
> Cc: [ontolog-forum]
> Subject: Re: [ontolog-forum] the justfication for chinese logic/mould
> I've said many things at many different times. And in almost every
> case, any summary in one sentence is going to be completely wrong.
> > you and others argued that all logical systems are based on FOL
> > (if I remember correctly) and that logical reasoning is not
> > different between east and west
> Both of those sentences are wrong, as stated. The number of
> qualifications is enormous, and any simple statement like that
> is going to be extremely misleading.
> If ever want to mention anything I said, please quote my exact
> words. Following is a summary, which you can quote, if you like.
> A summary of the relationships between logics and natural languages
> By John F. Sowa
> 1. Natural languages are *not* based on logic. Instead, all
> versions of logic are *abstractions from* natural languages.
> 2. There are many different versions of logic, and every one of
> them is a stylized or simplified version of one of the many
> ways of using a natural language. (Wittgenstein's term for
> those ways is 'Sprachspiel' or 'language game'.)
> 3. First-order logic is important because it is one of the
> *simplest* versions of logic that can be abstracted from
> any natural language.
> 4. But there are other kinds of logics that can be abstracted
> from natural languages, and they can be very useful for
> different purposes. Most people commonly use different
> logics and modes of reasoning for different purposes in
> their daily lives.
> 5. Different cultures in different parts of the world tend
> to emphasize different ways of using language -- different
> language games. Hence, they tend to have different
> preferences for different versions of logic and reasoning.
> 6. But some kinds of logic are widely used in many different
> language games in all parts of the world. FOL, for example,
> is the logic used to do arithmetic, and it is found in
> every culture that uses money and bookkeeping.
> 7. Since every formal logic is an abstraction from some way
> of using a natural language for some useful purpose,
> *every* version of logic is a natural logic. Some versions,
> however, are more widely used than others. But even the
> rare versions are natural for the purposes for which the
> people who needed them developed them.
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