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Re: [ontolog-forum] Axiomatic ontology

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Fri, 01 Feb 2008 00:51:09 -0500
Message-id: <47A2B34D.7050302@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Pat,    (01)

The amount of "common sense" info on the WWW dwarfs Cyc by many
orders of magnitude.    (02)

PH> Remember, common sense isn't encyclopedia knowledge: its
 > the 'obvious' stuff that any child knows about the way the
 > world works, such as: things fall if they aren't supported;
 > roofs protect you from rain unless it is very windy; if you
 > fall into a liquid you will get wet; parties are events which
 > people go to in order to socialize and have fun, and often
 > though not always celebrate an event such as a birthday;
 > objects are made of kinds of stuff; Jello is a kind of stuff;
 > hitting something fragile is likely to break it if you hit it
 > hard enough; being in a cold space makes you feel cold; you
 > can walk on sand but it can also be poured, if it is dry;
 > being covered with paint is similar in some ways to being
 > covered with hair, but not in all ways; people like eating
 > sugar; animals die if they stop eating or stop drinking; if
 > you are in a room in a building then you are in the building,
 > but if you are in a ship floating in water, you are not in
 > the water; and so on and on and on.    (03)

It's not stated in a list of that sort, but it's implicit in
the way those words are being used.  You can test that claim
by a crude, but simple use of Google.    (04)

For example:    (05)

    "parties are events which people go to in order to socialize and
    have fun, and often though not always celebrate an event such as
    a birthday"    (06)

Check pairs of words from that sentence on Google, look at the count
of hits, and check a few of the pages in the top hits:    (07)

    party event -- 29,100,000 hits    (08)

    party people -- 39,500,000    (09)

    party socialize -- 1,280,000    (010)

    party fun -- 34,000,000    (011)

    party celebrate -- 14,200,000    (012)

This is an enormous amount of data about how parties are related
to those other things.  Furthermore, much more detailed information
about how they're related can be found in the top few pages.    (013)

I certainly do not recommend that one should use the Google method
of indexing to find the related information.  What I would recommend
is the method of indexing described in the following paper by Arun
and me:    (014)

    Analogical Reasoning    (015)

I don't believe that the information has to wait until somebody
"tags" it with XML tags.  Tags are fine for various formal purposes.
But for commonsense info, I would rather start with the raw data,
as it is stated by people talking or writing for other people.    (016)

John    (017)

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