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Re: [ontolog-forum] Next steps in using ontologies as standards

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Mon, 26 Jan 2009 09:26:27 -0500
Message-id: <497DC813.5050809@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Chris,    (01)

That's a useful summary of the philosophical issues about formal
logic and ontology:    (02)

CP> A colleague reminded me of this resource which discusses the
 > links between ontology and logic.
 > http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ontology/    (03)

When we talk about controlled natural languages, such as
Aristotle's syllogisms or any of the more recent notations,
we focus on just the mapping from the CNL to the formal
logic.  That mapping depends on the following two methods
for bypassing the most serious problems of true NLs:    (04)

  1. Assuming or declaring one sense for each word (or
     multiword phrase, such as 'lightning rod').    (05)

  2. Defining a syntactically unambiguous notation for
     the expressions, sentences, and combinations of
     sentences.    (06)

These two steps create a notation for a CNL that can be read
by anyone who knows the base NL.  This is a very important
property for practical applications because the formal notations
for ontology (even the graphical ones) are definitely not
readable by most subject-matter experts.    (07)

For examples, see the comparison of medical "English" to
controlled English and to two dialects of Common Logic:    (08)

    http://www.jfsowa.com/talks/cl_sowa.pdf    (09)

The original example of medical English is on slide 15.
The translation to Common Logic Controlled English (CLCE)
is on slide 21, the translation to CLIF on slide 22,
and the translation to CGIF on slide 23.    (010)

By the way, the translation to each of those three notations
fit on one slide.  But the translation to OWL took many,
many, many, many, many pages.    (011)

John    (012)

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