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Re: [ontolog-forum] Endurantism and Perdurantism - Re: Some Comments on

To: ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
From: John F Sowa <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2015 21:45:31 -0400
Message-id: <551B4DBB.9030203@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Pat, Ravi, and Robert,    (01)

> In traditional logical syntax these ways of talking are mutually
> incommensurable... They are eliminated in ISO Common Logic (and,
> by the way, in RDF) so now we can all stop arguing about the true
> nature of such things as flows in pipes, glaciers and ripening
> bananas...    (02)

I agree.    (03)

> If we describe an object in 4D (time being integral - especially
> where processes impact the object during time of consideration)
> does that take care of dynamic aspects and how would then 4D
> ontologies be constructed? Just like the implicit 3D or not?    (04)

As Pat said and I agreed, these are different ways of talking.
If you use a typeless logic, such as CL, these ways of talking
can be mapped to and from one another.  The choice of which one
to adopt is a matter of convenience in computation, database
design, or ease of mapping to and from ordinary language.    (05)

But there are also semantic issues.  In _Features and Fluents_,
Eric Sandewall listed options that require different axioms for
distinct theories.  If you multiply the options, you get a total
of 2,304 different theories about processes.  For a summary, see
http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/process.htm    (06)

When you introduce causality and its interactions with time, you get
even more semantic issues.  See http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/causal.htm    (07)

> These entities--from glaciers to the coffee mug--however, exhibit
> a stability (structural, compositional, material, persistence, etc.)
> that, in part, presumably is what makes them easily classifiable as
> objects.    (08)

All those criteria have fuzzy borders.  A waterfall is constantly
changing its material, but so are living things.  Some living things
-- octopus or amoeba -- change structure quite rapidly.  And there
are things like bacterial colonies and slime molds on the border
between single-celled and multi-celled organisms.    (09)

Whitehead stated a useful criterion:  an object is sufficiently
stable to be recognized at repeated encounters.  Waterfalls have
that property.  The Great Red Spot in the atmosphere of Jupiter
is a storm that has been recognized for over 300 years.    (010)

John    (011)

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