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## Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as

 To: ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx John F Sowa Mon, 30 Jun 2014 18:16:54 -0400 <53B1E1D6.5070109@xxxxxxxxxxx>
 ```Ed,    (01) There are multiple interrelated issues. > We have apparently switched from what the logic is to what the notation is.    (02) Following is an earlier paper (from 1995), in which I discussed the relationships between Peirce-Davidson event variables, Barwise-Perry situations, and John McCarthy contexts:    (03) http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/context.pdf Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics of Contexts    (04) Short summary: they assume different ontologies (i.e., what their quantified variables refer to), it's possible to relate them, but their different ontologies enable some things to be stated in one that cannot be stated in the others.    (05) Example: Consider the sentence s, "Sue gives a child a book." And two theories that represent the proposition expressed by s:    (06) Theory t1: (∃ x1, x2, x3)(Sue=x1 & child(x2) & book(x3) & gives(x1,x2,x3)).    (07) Theory t2: (∃ x1, x2, x3, x4)(Sue=x1 & child(x2) & book(x3) & gives(x4) & agent(x4,x1) & recipient(x4,x2) & theme(x4,x3)).    (08) Theory t2 is a Peircean (or Davidsonian) version of t1. Since t1 and t2 are true in exactly the same models, t2 is a refinement of t1 that uses an ontology that makes finer distinctions.    (09) > But I could use your syntactic "context" notation and translate > it to a Davidsonian form instead.    (010) A B-P situation can contain multiple events and their participants, and some events may overlap multiple situations. The same is true about John McC contexts, but they are not equivalent. See the context.pdf article.    (011) > I would argue that your "syntactic context" approach still requires > that theory of time, and that creating ternary or quaternary relations > with time arguments makes that theory harder to use.    (012) I agree with both clauses of that sentence. The reason why I did that mapping was *theoretical*: I was trying to show that the syntax of contexts -- by themselves -- does *not* go beyond the expressive power of FOL. When you use them to represent propositions, they raise other issues, but they can still be expressed in FOL.    (013) In fact, the flat notation of the laws.pdf article is similar to the SNePS notation by Stuart Shapiro and his colleagues. For an example and brief summary (with references), see Figure 8 of    (014) http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/semnet.htm Semantic Networks    (015) John    (016) _________________________________________________________________ Message Archives: http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum/ontolog-forum/ Config Subscr: http://ontolog.cim3.net/mailman/listinfo/ontolog-forum/ Unsubscribe: mailto:ontolog-forum-leave@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Shared Files: http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/ Community Wiki: http://ontolog.cim3.net/wiki/ To join: http://ontolog.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?WikiHomePage#nid1J    (017) ```
 Current Thread Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, (continued) Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, Tara Athan Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, John F Sowa Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, Barkmeyer, Edward J Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, Mark H Linehan Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, John F Sowa Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, Richard H. McCullough Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, Kingsley Idehen [ontolog-forum] Become the Ontology SME, John Bottoms Re: [ontolog-forum] Become the Ontology SME, rrovetto Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, Barkmeyer, Edward J Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, John F Sowa <= [ontolog-forum] Reducing IKL to CL (was: Re: Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes), Pat Hayes Re: [ontolog-forum] Reducing IKL to CL, John F Sowa Re: [ontolog-forum] Reducing IKL to CL, Pat Hayes Re: [ontolog-forum] Reducing IKL to CL (was: Re: Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes), Chris Menzel Re: [ontolog-forum] Requesting Opinions on the Benefits of Predicates as Nodes, Kingsley Idehen