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Re: [ontolog-forum] What's "Ontology Chemistry"?

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: Phil Murray <pcmurray2000@xxxxxxxxx>
Date: Mon, 21 Nov 2011 11:18:08 -0500
Message-id: <4ECA79C0.9080003@xxxxxxxxx>
Christopher --    (01)

I finally got a few minutes to do a quick read of this post, and it does 
make sense to me.    (02)

However,    (03)

 1. As with wild cats, I tread lightly around integrating metaphors,
    because they may strike unexpectedly, and
 2. I look forward to your navigation of the treacherous shoals of
    "context" -- especially as it addresses the challenges of
    complexity. (Talking about "context" always seems to introduce
    complexity rather than resolve it.)    (04)

Damn. I get all metaphorical when I reply to your posts.    (05)

     Phil    (06)

Christopher Spottiswoode wrote:
> All,
> This post pursues the question in the subject-line, the first post in
> the thread having been the launch of discussions around the proposal for
> an Ontolog Community project you can read more about on
> *Please note:*  In standards parlance this post is "non-normative" as
> far as the project and the specifications of its target product are
> concerned.
> However, this expansion of the "Ontology Chemistry" metaphor will help
> make the specifications to be gathered on the above page more
> graphically meaningful.  I believe that might help you get the full
> picture sooner.  (Please tell me whether or not you find it helpful?)
> But in the interest of brevity in those specifications the metaphorical
> picture is best kept separate.  Hence this post.
> On October 19, now archived at
> http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum/ontolog-forum/2011-10/msg00088.html, I had
> written:
>> The chemistry metaphor evokes ontological atoms, molecules, molecular
>> properties and reactions, chemical pathways, all the way up to
>> large-scale chemical engineering, all ontology-based.
>> That picture may seem mere new decoration for the more familiar
>> Software Engineering (SE) scene of Separation of Concerns,
>> modularization, component architectures, component markets and
>> application composition.
>> It does indeed cover all those notions, very fully too, and more.  But
>> it all derives closely from very fundamental though actually quite
>> simple O/ontology, and it will revolutionize Internet-based SE.
>> The key novelty at the fundamental level in the proposed new
>> dispensation derives from some small though crucial tweaks to current
>> ontological notions, or shifts of emphasis.  They will enable formal
>> manipulation of significant constructs with appropriate granularities.
>> That's where the beautiful chemistry emerges.
>> That will mean - as far as I can make out now (for if I'm expert in
>> any field it's in some mere corners of SE) - that the whole project is
>> surprisingly complementary with almost all present work in ontology
>> (after just a little bit of mutatis mutandis...).  More than that, the
>> Challenge product and its self-evolved descendants will serve as a
>> better platform for such work.  You will slip into the new clothes
>> almost without noticing.  No, it is the folks in SE who may have a
>> hard time at first.  However, the naturalness and simplicity of the
>> new ecosystem will dawn on them, and their users will be making
>> demands...
> So, let us expand on the metaphor of Ontology Chemistry.
> (Some list members may have noted that I am very partial to metaphors,
> some of which I most confidently admit to having guided me significantly
> throughout the development of OntChem.  That makes them possibly
> misleading, so they certainly call for searching examination and
> critique.  The OntChem metaphor, on the other hand, only struck me about
> a year ago, and the molecular biology facet of it, described below, only
> hit me a few weeks ago.  So there has been very little opportunity for
> this chemistry metaphor to mislead me.  You may rest assured on that
> count at least!)
> The atom analogue is the familiar triple-fact of subject, relationship
> and object.  (That looks very like rdf but the differences will outweigh
> the similarities, so please don't judge OntChem by rdf, just as you must
> not judge this semantic web by the w3c's conception of it.)  The
> subatomic particles are then analogous to entity and relationship,
> neither of which are meaningful in themselves or able to exist
> independently.  But assembled into an atom fact they do have real
> meaning.
> We will see later what that "real meaning" consists of, and also how the
> binary-relationship nature of this atom is no more of a real limitation
> or constraint than the binary coding within digital machines or our
> alphabetic rendering of living language words.  What matters is the
> higher-granularity and user-meaningful structures we may create using
> such simple atoms.  And you will see how every fact in such structures
> is n-ary anyway.
> The first higher-granularity structure, namely the molecule, is then
> predictably an interrelated and coherent set or graph
> of atoms/facts.  So molecules are the reusable components from which
> complete applications may be composed.  Clearly, that glib verbiage does
> not reflect the realities of the present ontology world.  But with those
> "tweaks" or "shifts of emphasis" in the quote above that ideal will be
> met.  Their detail will be the subject of another post and some concise
> specifications to be added on the WorkingDraft page already referred to
> above.  For example, distinctions between intension and extension still
> need to be made, and semantics particularly, those "molecular properties
> and reactions" from my previous post quoted above, is a critical area to
> filled out.
> But on the whole it may seem that there is nothing very unusual so far.
> However, consider once again that word "complete" in the second sentence
> of the previous paragraph.  It should be more than startling, as that
> word "tweak" in this case actually indicates a quantum leap of an
> extension of the concept of an ontology.  However, the word is fitting
> inasmuch as the relevant feature is after all a very natural and
> coherent addition to the abstract structure, as we shall see in another
> post (my next one to the "foundation and method" thread).  But maybe it
> is already evident, from the enabling of the composition of complete
> applications, that the implications for SE will be largely thanks to
> this addition?
> The next metaphorical construction will seem somewhat more
> controversial.  It involves the key notion of "context", that subject of
> many interpretations and much controversy in AI and ontological circles.
> But until that next "foundation and method" post I will not go into its
> detailed and precise definition.  Suffice it to say for now that it
> results in a coherent composition of molecules into larger ones, and it
> is exactly what is called for by the old platitude, "The meaning of a
> statement is implicit in its context."  (Or "largely implicit", if you
> want to be more careful.)
> Now, and as it happens (as I have only recently noticed), there is a
> remarkably close chemistry analogue of the function and role of the
> 'context' concept in the OntChem Information System Architecture.  It is
> Messenger RNA or mRNA in the biological cell.
> Let us take a lead from the biochemical picture's essential features as
> far as the analogy is concerned.  Consider the graphic in the
> attachment.  (If you cannot see it here you can find it where it came
> from, namely as the first image in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/mRNA.)
> The DNA-equivalent is the available stock of components for the
> choosing.  It is the total of all ontologies in all available Ontology
> Repositories.  Of course, "complexity" is the name of both games.  The
> human genome has about 3 billion base-pairs or bits of information.  If
> the DNA from just one single cell of the human body were to be
> straightened out from its intricately coiled double-helix form it would
> stretch for 2 or 3 metres.  Likewise, in the future we should expect
> even larger arrays of ontologies for the choosing, the whole lot
> virtually available to every user all the time.  But each cell, each
> user, has limited objectives at any one time.
> So the problem in both cases is one of ... "the simplification of
> complexity"!  How is any single cell to abstract from all the
> possibilities in the full DNA and know how to perform its precise
> function as needed at any one time?  How is any user to identify and use
> exactly the components required for achieving his or her objective of
> the moment?
> In the cell that selection process is known as gene expression, and its
> mechanisms are still far from well-known, but they are of course
> generally assumed to be well-determined by the local cell in some
> physico-chemical way ultimately derived from DNA-coded information in
> the local cell and/or any other cells, all as influenced by ambient
> conditions.  In the case of the AOS the process will likewise depend on
> the precise state of the local subset of the universal factbase, itself
> a function of relevant users' choices and other inputs as interpreted in
> their own contexts.
> But however it takes place in any one case, in the cell a molecule of
> mRNA is produced, and in our AOS-driven digital UI a
> "goal-in-a-context" is produced, in each case representing an
> enormous simplification of virtually infinite possibilities.
> Then, in the prokaryote or primitive organism cell without a nucleus,
> protein synthesis according to the mRNA's message takes place locally.
> In the eukaryote or nuclear cell there is more complicated transport of
> the mRNA through the cell wall for protein synthesis in the cytoplasm,
> as portrayed in the graphic. In the AOS a "local goal" will be created
> and pursued if no other threads or agents are involved.  If an input
> results in a more complex multithreaded or networked requirement a
> "external goal" might be created and sent into another known context or
> service for resolution there and return of outcome.  That is the basis
> of both enquiries and distributed transactions, and of IPC
> (Inter-Process Communication) in general.
> That picture will, I suspect, seem rather complicated and hard to
> program or manage, and it does of course lack many details in this brief
> portrayal here.  But there will be very simple examples as soon as we
> have looked at the OntChem-peculiar divergences from your conventional
> notion of an ontology.  However, they will not make much sense at first
> without the overall picture here.  (At least, I suspect that might be
> the case, seeing that much of the underlying detail was already set out
> in my "MACK basics" series of Ontolog posts in 2008 and nobody seems to
> have grasped their impact then.  So I am just hoping now that I have
> drawn the right conclusions from that expository failure of mine!)
> So I am some immediate questions for you:  Has the above use of the
> genetic parallel in the Ontology Chemistry metaphor helped create a
> picture in your mind of the role of 'context' in the execution of the
> AOS?  Has it left you looking forward to the basic technical details of
> the construction and application of contexts and goals-in-context?
> Now, before we move on to such immediate detail, do please note that
> just as the cellular and genetic picture above is presumed the basis of
> all life as an evolutionary phenomenon, so also does the AOS and
> ontology-defined-context memetic setup address all sharable or common
> knowledge as a fully evolutionary phenomenon.  With your help in
> clarifying my presentation of this long-evolved design, you will
> hopefully soon see surprisingly easily how discovery, creativity and
> invention - and hence variation and evolution of the relevant
> replicators, namely ontologies - are also part of that picture in a very
> central, detailed and practical way.
> My present plan is another post in the "foundation and method" thread.
> It will start setting out the basic features of the OntChem ontology as
> molecule or application component, and indicate how they enable the
> precise definition of 'context' and thereby the composition of complete
> applications.
> The starting-point in that exposition will be this 2008 post by Pat
> Hayes to the Forum:
> http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum/ontolog-forum/2008-01/msg00385.html.
> Pat's long paragraph starting with "Bear in mind", as I interpret it,
> sets the course I shall be taking.
> Thank you.
> Christopher
> begin 666 mRNA-interaction.jpg
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> M("(B`B(@(B("(B B(@(B("(B`B(@(B("(B B(@(B("(B`B(@(B("(B B(@(B
> M("(B`B(@(B("(B B(@(B("(B`B(@(B("(B B(@(B("(B`B(@(B("(B B(@(B
> )("(B`B(@?__9
> `
> end
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