John, you missed the critical adverb: (01)
> PC> You do need an FO if multiple independently developed
> > domain ontologies want to share data and interoperate
> > automatically.
> That is false. You can make independently developed systems
> with inconsistent or even undefined upper levels interoperate.
> OntologyWorks does that all the time. The key point is that
> you should *never* try to merge two total ontologies. Instead,
> you only need to extract the parts that are necessary for the
> task(s) on which interoperability is required.
**automatically** means that the systems that are developed independemntly
can still share information accurately **without any further human
intervention**. None of the projects you cite supports that capability.
They all require some experts to negotiate differences of terminology or
meaning **after the localsystems are developed**, before the desired
interoperabilty emerges. That can be done in lots of ways and does not
require any ontology unless the local systems are ontology-based. (03)
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