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Re: [ontolog-forum] Current Semantic Web Layer Cake

To: Azamat <abdoul@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Cc: 'SW-forum' <semantic-web@xxxxxx>, "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Tue, 31 Jul 2007 17:13:27 -0400
Message-id: <46AFA5F7.1060706@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Azamat,    (01)

I agree:    (02)

 > The scopes and subject matters of Ontology and Logic shouldn't
 > be mixed.    (03)

Logic is independent of any domain because it makes no claim
or commitment to any domain.  Ontology specifies the content
of whatever domain or domains are of interest.    (04)

 > The real semantics or meaning of any symbolism or notation is
 > defined by ontology;    (05)

That depends on what you mean by semantics.  If you mean the
*content* that relates to the domain, then that is the province
of ontology.  But if you mean the procedure for determining
whether any particular statement about some domain is true
or false of that domain, then that is the province of logic.    (06)

 > for this [ontology] is the only knowledge domain studying the
 > Being of Everything which is, happens and relates.    (07)

I'll accept that statement.    (08)

 > Logic is a formal science, because it concerned only with the
 > formal parts of Discourse about Anything or Everything.  Logic
 > considers the elements (the terms, propositions, inferences or
 > syllogisms) of the whole discourse aside from their reference
 > to the world (or their real meanings and significance). As a
 > formal science, Logic deals with the formal patterns of
 > discourse common to all sciences.    (09)

I'll accept that statement.    (010)

 > Ontology deals with the matter and content, with the real
 > components of discourse about anything,    (011)

I'll accept that statement.    (012)

 > Logic is an art, an instrument of intellectual reasoning,
 > at least a formal science,    (013)

I'll accept that statement.    (014)

 > [Logic] has nothing to do with reality, real significance or
 > real meanings,    (015)

That is not quite right.  Logic is the science that determines
the general truth conditions for statements about any or every
kind of reality, no matter what it may be.  Ontology uses
logic to make statements that describe a particular reality.    (016)

As I said in my previous note, if you have an inconsistent logic
-- i.e., an inconsistent theory of truth -- then nothing that
you can express in that logic is reliable.  You cannot express
a consistent ontology if your logic itself is inconsistent.    (017)

John    (018)

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