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Re: [ontolog-forum] Adverbs (was Anthropology of Colour)

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2008 00:29:55 -0500
Message-id: <47DF5353.70905@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Folks,    (01)

With all the nested comments upon comments, I'm not sure who
said what.  But I'd like add my comments to the following:    (02)

 >> John buttered the toast slowly
 >> would have to be represented using completely different predicates,
 >> one for "buttered" and another for "slowly buttered", e.g., "Bjt"
 >> and "Sjt" or "Buttered(john,thetoast)" and
 >> "SlowlyButtered(john,thetoast)".  This is very unsatisfactory,    (03)

That point, among others, is a reason why I prefer to represent
all content words in NLs as concept types in CGs (or monadic
predicates in other versions of logic).  Then the relations
among instances of those types could be shown by a small number
of relations.    (04)

Davidson used relations similar to the *thematic roles* or
*case relations* that link the participants of an action to the
concept that represents verb:  Agent (Agnt), Patient (Ptnt),
Instrument (Inst), etc.  But I would add other relations such
as Attribute (Attr), which would link a concept that represents
a noun to the concept that represents an adjective or a concept
that represents a verb to a concept that represents an adverb.    (05)

Example: "John slowly buttered the toast."    (06)

Conceptual Graph Interchange Format (CGIF):    (07)

    [Person John] [Buttering *x] [Toast *y] [Slow *z]
    (Agnt ?x John) (Ptnt ?x ?y) (Attr ?x ?z)    (08)

Common Logic Interchange Format (CLIF):    (09)

    (exists ((x Buttering) (y Toast) (z Slow))
       (and (Person John) (Agnt x John) (Ptnt x y) (Attr x z)))    (010)

Chris's recommended simplification    (011)

    (Ex)(Event(e) & Buttering(e,j,t))    (012)

would be represented in CLIF as    (013)

    (exists ((e Event) (j Person) (t Toast)) (Buttering e j t))    (014)

or in CGIF as    (015)

    [Event *e] [Person *j] [Toast *t] (Buttering ?e ?j ?t)    (016)

These representations could be related to one another
by an equivalence relation in CLIF:    (017)

    (forall ((e Event) (j Person) (t Toast))
       (iff (Buttering e j t)
            (exists ((x Buttering))
               (and (Agnt x j) (Ptnt x t)))))    (018)

or in CGIF:    (019)

    [Event @every*e] [Person @every*j] [Toast @every*t]
    [Equiv [Iff (Buttering ?e ?j ?t)]
           [Iff [Buttering *x] (Agnt ?x ?j) (Ptnt ?x ?t)]]    (020)

John Sowa    (021)

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