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Re: [ontolog-forum] semantic analysis

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "doug foxvog" <doug@xxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Sat, 21 Aug 2010 14:11:14 -0400 (EDT)
Message-id: <62211.>
On Sat, August 21, 2010 4:06, FERENC KOVACS said:
> Dear All,
> I have a homework to do, namely to sum up what and how AI technology
> combined
> with ontologies are used for outsiders (like myself as well). May I ask
> you to
> take a glance at the passages    (01)

I have a few clarifications.  See below.    (02)

-- doug foxvog    (03)

> Ferenc    (04)

> Semantic analysis in AI starts from syntactically parsing a text or other
> sequences of signals to see if the statements (valid chunks) are well
> formed.
> Then the statements are analysed semantically against a set of axioms laid
> down
> beforehand to see if the semantic content of the statements ise adequate,
> i.e.
> if it is true. Then on the basis of true statements,conclusions are drawn,
> and
> this process is called reasoning. The statements in the input text refer
> to the
> real world and their validity is tested against the axioms consising of
> other
> statements about the real world.    (05)

> The input text is written either in a controlled language or a in formal
> language which are in turn described in a normal form in the sense that
> nothing
> is left undefined. For instance in using BNF every sign/symbol in the
> language
> is defined recursively, in terms of other symbols and there is a basic set
> of
> terminal symbols that are used to generate statements.    (06)

> The process of
> semantically analysing texts is in fact a syntactic analysis,     (07)

The initial statement of this description is more accurate.  I.e., that
semantic analysis STARTS with syntactic analysis of its input text.
Logical analysis follows.    (08)

> which requires
> that all symbols/names should be unique,    (09)

Some systems rely on unique symbols/names.  Semantic analysis in general
does not.    (010)

> otherwise it is not possible to make a
> decision, or serve the purpose of the procedure.    (011)

Not necessarily.  One purpose of semantic analysis might be to determine
which of a set of individuals is equal to another.  A hypothetical
example would be representing the perpetrator of a crime with one symbol
and each of the suspects with a separate symbol.  True statements are
made about each of the suspects and the perpetrator.  The reasoning
process is designed to map one of the suspects with the perpetrator or
to determine that they are all distinct.    (012)

> Thus the objective of AI and automated reasoning is to support real life
> decision systems.    (013)

This is AN objective, but not the sole objective.  They can be used to
generate stories, for example.    (014)

> AI applications are focused on particular domains and are
> normally *complete* or closed with respect to those domains.    (015)

Not necessarily.    (016)

> The data that they rely on are in database formats    (017)

The data may be numerous different formats.  It is not restricted to
a database format.    (018)

> and syllogisms are used to draw conclusions    (019)

Logical reasoning is used to draw such conclusions.    (020)

> from
> premises that are embodied in the axioms on the basis of which input data
> are tested.
> _________________________________________________________________    (021)

doug foxvog    doug@xxxxxxxxxx   http://ProgressiveAustin.org    (022)

"I speak as an American to the leaders of my own nation. The great
initiative in this war is ours. The initiative to stop it must be ours."
    - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
=============================================================    (023)

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