[Top] [All Lists]

Re: [ontolog-forum] New Book: "Narrative Information"

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Tue, 10 Feb 2009 15:51:50 -0500
Message-id: <4991E8E6.6070501@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Pat,    (01)

The inner arguments are semantically, not grammatically obligatory.    (02)

JFS>> For 'give', the number of inner or obligatory participants is 3,
 >> and there is an open-ended number of optional relationships for the
 >> time, place, manner, etc.    (03)

PH> True, but this distinction is purely grammatical. I have to say
 > "XX gave YY to ZZ", with all three grammatically required phrases
 > in place (and Im not obliged similarly to say where or when or
 > how), but Im not obliged to actually provide the information.    (04)

Those arguments can be omitted if they are implicit in the context:    (05)

  - We are collecting donations for the Red Cross.    (06)

  - I gave at the office.    (07)

Semantically, 'give' has three participants.  One or two may be
omitted in a grammatical English sentence if they are obvious
from the context.  But they exist, whether or not the speaker
or listener knows who or what they are.    (08)

PH> I can say 'someone' or 'something' as a filler which satisfies
 > the grammatical constraint without actually providing information,
 > when the information is missing.  Or I can use the passive voice
 > and say "Mary was given a book" without saying "by XX". When
 > sentences like these are converted to logic, the missing arguments
 > are still missing.    (09)

But they still exist.  All three participants must exist in an act
of giving, whether or not they are known or identified explicitly.    (010)

PH> To describe this event without mentioning John or the book,
 > we have to say "Mary received a gift".    (011)

The verb 'receive' has only two semantic participants.  It may
be used in situations with an active agent, but it can also be
used in situations where no giver or sender is implied:    (012)

    Bob received an inspiration.    (013)

    The radio received random static.    (014)

John    (015)

Message Archives: http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum/ontolog-forum/  
Config Subscr: http://ontolog.cim3.net/mailman/listinfo/ontolog-forum/  
Unsubscribe: mailto:ontolog-forum-leave@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Shared Files: http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/
Community Wiki: http://ontolog.cim3.net/wiki/ 
To join: http://ontolog.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?WikiHomePage#nid1J
To Post: mailto:ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx    (016)

<Prev in Thread] Current Thread [Next in Thread>