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Re: [ontolog-forum] quadruples talk

To: "[ontolog-forum]" <ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Fri, 07 Sep 2007 15:33:22 -0400
Message-id: <46E1A782.3080402@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Natural languages typically support 1, 2, or 3 arguments
for verbs and prepositions.  Additional prepositions must
be added to support 4 or more arguments.    (01)

0 arguments:    (02)

    [It] rains.  (Dummy place holder, which is omitted
         in many languages, such as Latin 'pluit'.    (03)

1 argument:    (04)

    X sleeps, walks, exists, lives, dies.    (05)

2 arguments:    (06)

   X has, sees, wants, knows Y    (07)

   X in, on, above, below, under Y    (08)

3 arguments:    (09)

   Sue gave Bob a book.    (010)

   Jane painted the kitchen yellow.    (011)

   Bill called Jack a hero.    (012)

   X between Y and Z    (013)

4 arguments:    (014)

   Sue sold Bob a book for ten dollars.    (015)

   Bob bought a book from Sue for ten dollars.    (016)

6 arguments:    (017)

   Tom arrived at JFK from SFO at 9 pm via AA on Flight 18.    (018)

Examples like the last illustrate two points:    (019)

  1. It is possible to use lots of dyadic relations, such as
     'at', 'from', 'on, and 'via'.    (020)

  2. It is possible to reduce the number of dyadic relations
     by grouping all six items into a single 6-tuple -- that's
     the preferred solution in relational databases.    (021)

Common Logic is intended to support all the  major notations
for logic, and it is designed to accept input from any form,
and it can reorganize the result for output in any other form.    (022)

John Sowa    (023)

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