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## Re: [ontolog-forum] Proceedings: "Database & Ontology" mini-series Sessi

 To: "[ontolog-forum]" paola.dimaio@xxxxxxxxx Tue, 17 Jul 2007 17:16:09 +0700
 Thanks JohnI do not mean to insist on this lilliputian quibble but... >   Given: Tweety, Polly, and Hooty are birds. Fred is bat. >          Tweety, Polly, and Hooty fly. Fred flies. >   Assume: Every bird flies. could you explain how does the bat part of your statement end up in the assumption that every bird flies? or does the assumption completely ignores the fact that Fred is a bat. yet it flies?if the assumption is based on taking into account both parts of the statement, then the assumption as stated above seems incomplete - this logic right? not everything that flies is a bird, and not every bird fliesI ll make something up for the class(feel free to ignore )POn 7/14/07, John F. Sowa wrote: Paola,In my previous note, I forgot to answer the following question:PDM> My assumption, following your example 2 would be: > not only birds fly -  would I be right?JFS> 2. Induction. Assume a general principle that subsumes many facts. > >   Given: Tweety, Polly, and Hooty are birds. Fred is bat. >          Tweety, Polly, and Hooty fly. Fred flies. >   Assume: Every bird flies.PDM> NOT ONLY BIRDS FLY.Yes, that is true.  But that is a separate observation. The assumption made by induction is "Every bird flies."The additional statement "Not only birds fly" followsfrom two facts plus some background knowledge plus aninference.  Following are the facts as given:      Fred is a bat.  Fred flies.The additional background knowledge, which was not statedin the slide, is     No bat is a bird. From that statement and the preceding facts, one can infer by deduction:     Some things fly that are not birds.Then it is possible to rephrase that conclusion as a qualifierto the preceding:     Every bird flies, but not only birds fly.In short, you could add that statement, but it is derived by a more complex series of steps.  For teaching purposes,it might be better to show that in a separate slide.(And, of course, the statement "Every bird flies" has to bequalified when you consider penguins and kiwis.  You also have to exclude injured birds, baby birds, sleeping birds, anddead birds -- remember the dead parrot from Monty Python.)John_________________________________________________________________Message Archives: http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum/ontolog-forum/Subscribe/Config: http://ontolog.cim3.net/mailman/listinfo/ontolog-forum/ Unsubscribe: mailto:ontolog-forum-leave@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxShared Files: http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/Community Wiki: http://ontolog.cim3.net/wiki/To Post: mailto:ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx -- Paola Di Maio School of ITwww.mfu.ac.th********************************************* ``` _________________________________________________________________ Message Archives: http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum/ontolog-forum/ Subscribe/Config: http://ontolog.cim3.net/mailman/listinfo/ontolog-forum/ Unsubscribe: mailto:ontolog-forum-leave@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Shared Files: http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/ Community Wiki: http://ontolog.cim3.net/wiki/ To Post: mailto:ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx    (01) ```