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Re: [ontolog-forum] Universal and categories in BFO & DOLCE

To: ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
From: "John F. Sowa" <sowa@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Mon, 05 Sep 2011 09:22:55 -0400
Message-id: <4E64CD2F.7050101@xxxxxxxxxxx>
Doug and Erick,    (01)

> Unlike John, i do not mind the use of the term "subsumption".
> His "subtype" or subclass are more specific terms; binary and higher-
> order predicates can also be arranged in subsumption hierarchies although
> not in subtype/subclass hierarchies.    (02)

My comment about 'subsumption' is just that it's a rare word that
tends to frighten students.  My recommendation is to use the term
'generalization' instead.  From Google,    (03)

    Number of hits for 'subsumption' -         506,000    (04)

    Number of hits for 'generalization' -   13,200,000    (05)

    Number of hits for 'generalisation' -    2,420,000    (06)

Another advantage of the noun 'generalization' is that it has
the inverse 'specialization', and both nouns have common verbs
and adjectives like 'general', 'more general', 'generalize',
'specialize', 'specialized', 'more specialized', etc.    (07)

If we want more people to learn and use ontologies, we need to find
or define terminology that is precise, easy to remember, and easy
to read, write, speak, and teach.    (08)

> could you give an example of what you mentioned:    (09)

>> In different situations, the same method of classification will
>> produce a different set.  The class remains the same, but the sets
>> have different members or elements    (010)

Pick a term for any species:  'dog', 'dandelion', 'E. coli'.    (011)

Pick any situation:  New York City at 12 noon today, Planet Earth...    (012)

The predicates is-dog(x), is-dandelion(x), or is-E-coli(x) are
specified by some description of the species.  When applied to
different situations, they will determine different sets.    (013)

New York City is a big place, and it would be difficult or
impossible to enumerate all instances of dogs, dandelions,
or E. coli.  But we can be certain that the sets at different
points in time are very different.    (014)

If you like, you can choose a smaller situation, such as
the living room of your house.  It's much easier to observe
the sets of dogs and dandelions in your living room.  If you
don't have a dog the set is empty, unless you have a visitor.
If you do have a dog, the set keeps changing every time your
pet goes in or out.    (015)

John    (016)

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