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[ontolog-forum] Artificial Intelligence, Ontology and Epistemology

To: ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
From: joel luis carbonera <joelcarbonera@xxxxxxxxx>
Date: Fri, 26 Aug 2011 16:02:35 -0300
Message-id: <CALqyLEf+vDT5030fUa3EpZhKvOxaF8RSHX=_Ae2xMHSgfXJyUQ@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Artificial Intelligence, Ontology and Epistemology    (01)

I am still thinking about the issues in this topic. New questions are
arised to me, reading the other topics of this forum. I apologize if
the questions are trivial or ill-posed. I'm starting to study
ontologies in the context of expert systems.    (02)

I make a distinction as follows:    (03)

The knowledge of which objects exist in the field is a matter of ontology.
Example: "Every apple is a fruit with a rounded shape and color red"
(I'm simplifying, just to exemplify)    (04)

The knowledge of how one can know something about the domain objects
and how to make judgments about them, is a matter of epistemology:
Example: "Every apple with dark spots is inappropriate for human consumption"    (05)

Am I correct?    (06)

In Intelligent systems (such as expert systems), several distinct
types of knowledge are manipulated.    (07)

For example, the knowledge of the domain structure, static, which we
now call ontology (in the technical sense, of formal and explicit
specification of a shared conceptualization). It is this knowledge
which declares the objects that exist in that domain. This knowledge
can be manipulated by reasoners as Pellet, for example.    (08)

However, there is another kind of knowledge in these systems, which
allows other types of inference, which is often the heuristic
knowledge of the domain expert and is often represented in the form of
inference rules in these systems. This knowledge can be manipulated by
rules engines as JESS, for example.    (09)

(I know that these technologies (JESS and PALLET) can only be used
when we represent the knowledge in certain languages (as OWL and SWRL)
but I just should to contextualize)    (010)

Would be correct to say that this second type of knowledge represents
the domain epistemology as well as the first represents the domain
ontology?    (011)

An additional issue (based on the discussion on the two types of
Kantian propositions in other topic). Can I say that the first type of
knowledge (ontology) is more related to analytic propositions and the
second type (epistemology) is more related to synthetic propositions?
It makes sense to think in these terms?    (012)

Thanks.    (013)

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