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[ontolog-forum] semantic analysis was do not trust quantifiers

To: ontolog-forum@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
From: FERENC KOVACS <f.kovacs@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Thu, 23 Sep 2010 15:40:21 +0000 (GMT)
Message-id: <358263.54761.qm@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>

Doug, before we go any further, could you comment on these points, please


1. Semantic analysis (linguistics) “ is the process of relating syntactic structures, from the levels of phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs to the level of the writing as a whole, to their language-independent meanings, removing features specific to particular linguistic and cultural contexts, to the extent that such a project is possible.”



Main point: … relating …to meanings


2. Semantic analysis (knowledge representation) “a method for eliciting and representing knowledge about organisations. (Liu, 1991) Initially the problem must be defined by domain experts and passed to the project analyst(s). The next step is the generation of candidate affordances. This step will generate a list of semantic units that may be included in the schema. The candidate grouping follows where some of the semantic units that will appear in the schema are placed in simple groups. Finally the groups will be integrated together into an ontology chart. A case study of a library domain will be used to illustrate the process of Semantic Analysis. Semantic analysis always starts from the problem definition which if not clear, require the analyst to employ relevant literature, interviews with the stakeholders and other techniques towards collecting supplementary information.


Main points: eliciting and representing knowledge… list of semantic units that may be included in the schema… integrate together into an ontology chart… starts from the problem definition



3. Semantic analysis (machine learning)… n-grams and hidden Markov models work by representing the term stream as a markov chain where each term is derived from the few terms before it.



Main points: …each term is derived from the few terms before it…


4. Semantic analysis (compiler) is the phase in which the compiler adds semantic information to the parse tree and builds the symbol table. This phase performs semantic checks such as type checking (checking for type errors), or object binding (associating variable and function references with their definitions), or definite assignment (requiring all local variables to be initialized before use), rejecting incorrect programs or issuing warnings. Semantic analysis usually requires a complete parse tree, meaning that this phase logically follows the parsing phase, and logically precedes the code generation phase, though it is often possible to fold multiple phases into one pass over the code in a compiler implementation.

parsing, or, more formally, syntactic analysis, is the process of analyzing a text, made of a sequence of tokens (for example, words), to determine its grammatical structure with respect to a given (more or less) formal grammar. Parsing is also an earlier term for the diagramming of sentences of natural languages, and is still used for the diagramming of inflected languages.

Main points: Main points: … add semantic information…associating variable and function references with their defintions…parsing … a complete parse tree, meaning that this phase logically follows the parsing phase,

4. Semantic analysis (AI) … based on formal logic …evaluating a proposition in terms of truth and using th methods of inquiry as logic


FK: my conclusion

These above will explain why I think semantic analysis is the right term for looking for meaning in NL texts by decomposing such texts into a number of semantic primitives that are suitable for the coherent paraphrasis of the verbal texts in the form of an ontology designed to cover both various knowedge domains and the semantic and pragmatic aspects of a natural language (content words in contrast to grammar words).    

Correct me, if I am wrong.



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